Many people have a good habit of exercising, but many people still have doubts about the choice of exercise time. "Is it better to exercise in the morning or at night?" "Is running better or playing better?" "Do you choose aerobic exercise or strength training?" ….. For these questions, an article tells the answer!
This time of day is "prime time for sports"
On February 18th, Zhang Jihui team of Brain Hospital affiliated to Guangzhou Medical University published a study in the journal Nature Communications. Studies have shown that at any time of the day, moderate to intense physical activity can reduce the risk of all-cause, cardiovascular disease and cancer death. Importantly, compared with other time periods, daily exercise from 11: 00 to 17: 00 further reduces the mortality of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular diseases. ①
In this study, the researchers analyzed 92,139 participants, recorded their exercise time and intensity through effective accelerometer data, and analyzed the relationship between exercise and all-cause and specific-cause death risks.
Participants were divided into four groups according to their exercise time:
1. Morning group (5:00-11:00)
2. Noon-afternoon group (11:00-17:00)
3. Mixed group
4. Evening group (17:00-24:00)
The study found that:
1. Moderate to vigorous physical activity at any time of the day can reduce the risk of all-cause, cardiovascular disease and cancer death;
2. Compared with the morning group and the evening group, the all-cause mortality decreased by 11% and the mortality rate of cardiovascular diseases decreased by as much as 28% during daily exercise or mixed exercise from 11: 00 to 17: 00.
What sport suits you best? Different sports have different "efficacy"
1. The best exercise to reduce mortality-swing exercise.
In 2018, in a study published in the medical journal The Lancet Psychiatry, the researchers investigated the exercise data of more than 1.2 million people and found that all-cause mortality, such as badminton, tennis and table tennis, can reduce by 47%, followed by swimming and aerobic exercise, which can reduce by 28% and 27% respectively. ②
Swing can not only stimulate the shoulder muscles and the biceps brachii and triceps brachii, but also enhance the strength of the shoulders and arms, and exercise the coordination of the body and leg muscles in the process of rapid movement; In addition, the eyes rotate with the ball, which can improve the visual sensitivity.
It can exercise the coordination of the body and various muscle groups, improve the cardiopulmonary function, at the same time, make people pay more attention, keep the brain active, and delay the aging of the brain. It is recommended to swing 3 ~ 5 times a week, and each exercise is between 45 ~ 60 minutes.
Moreover, badminton, table tennis, tennis and other swing sports are suitable for people of all ages. For example, table tennis and badminton have poor antagonism, large or small activities and low intensity, which are suitable for both the elderly and young people, while tennis requires high strength and is suitable for young people to choose.
2. The best exercise to relieve mental stress-group sports
If you want to prolong your life, you should not only study the influence of exercise on your body, but also study the benefits of exercise on your mental state. The above research points out that group sports can improve the mood by 22%, which is the best exercise to relieve mental stress, followed by cycling and aerobics or dancing, which can improve the mood by 21% and 20% respectively. ②
Team sports refer to sports that require teamwork, such as football, basketball and volleyball. It helps people concentrate, helps to integrate into the collective and relieves bad emotions. Team sports suggest 45 minutes to 1 hour each time, and 3 to 5 times a week is the best.
Health Times He Maojie photo
3. The best exercise to lose weight and burn fat-aerobic exercise
In June 2021, the European Society for Obesity Research summarized the recommendation of exercise training for overweight and obese adults.
The study pointed out that for people who want to lose weight and fat, it is recommended to give priority to at least moderate-intensity aerobic exercise for 150 ~ 200 minutes per week, or to choose high-intensity interval training after assessing cardiovascular risk and monitoring. The two methods have similar effects on overweight or obese people, and the expected weight loss is 2~3 kilograms on average. ③
The so-called aerobic exercise refers to the exercise under the condition of sufficient oxygen supply, which is often a long-term exercise with medium and low intensity, while the anaerobic exercise is a short-term, high-speed and intense exercise. Aerobic exercise can promote metabolism in the body, accelerate the consumption of sugar and fat, promote uric acid excretion, and help strengthen cardiopulmonary function.
Chen Xi, Ph.D. in Internal Medicine, West China Clinical Medical College, Sichuan University, introduced in an interview with Health Times in August 2020 that aerobic exercise mainly includes walking, running, yoga, Tai Ji Chuan, pilates and cycling, with the aim of losing weight and fat, improving cardiopulmonary endurance and aerobic explosive force. ④
4. The best exercise for lowering blood pressure-aerobic exercise+strength training
The prevalence of hypertension is generally on the rise, and lack of physical activity is one of the main reasons.
In March, 2021, the European Association for Heart Disease Prevention (EAPC) and the ESC Hypertension Council issued a consensus on personalized exercise prescription for the prevention and treatment of hypertension. They believed that exercise was indeed effective for patients with hypertension, and proposed to choose different exercise methods to reduce blood pressure according to blood pressure level. ⑤
The consensus points out that aerobic exercise should be used as a first-line physical activity mode for people with hypertension. The average systolic blood pressure can be reduced by 4.9~12.0 mm Hg, and the diastolic blood pressure can be reduced by 3.4~5.8 mm Hg. Including brisk walking, jogging, swimming, cycling, aerobics, skipping rope, etc.
In addition, low and moderate intensity strength training is recommended, including isotonic training (which can reduce systolic period by 4.3~6.6 mm Hg and diastolic period by 4.5~5.5 mm Hg) or isometric training (systolic period by 0.5~6.9 mm Hg and diastolic period by 1.0~5.2 mm Hg), which can be used as second-line exercise therapy.
Isotonic training refers to strength exercises in which muscles contract, shorten and relax alternately, which can improve neuromuscular coordination. Such as weight-bearing squat, bench press, clean and jerk, etc.
Isometric training is a training method for muscle contraction when both ends (starting and ending points) of the muscle are fixed or overloaded. Such as flat plate support, static belly roll, etc.
The guide emphasizes that different training methods such as aerobic exercise, isotonic training and isometric training can reduce systolic and diastolic blood pressure to varying degrees, so different people should give priority to the corresponding exercise with the most effective blood pressure reduction effect according to their own blood pressure range.
5. The best exercise to increase muscle strength-resistance exercise
As an important part of the human body, muscle can not only make the body shape more beautiful, keep a young and healthy posture, but also help exercise, balance and strength. At the same time, it also plays an active role in various metabolism.
Chen Xi, Ph.D. in Internal Medicine, West China Clinical Medical College, Sichuan University, introduced in an interview with Health Times in August 2020 that resistance exercise refers to the exercise methods of the human body when overcoming external resistance, mainly including sit-ups, squats, supine push-ups, etc., and can also be carried out with the help of instruments, including sandbags, dumbbells, rubber bands, etc., which can exercise muscles and effectively improve metabolism. The purpose of resistance exercise is to increase muscle mass, enhance muscle strength and improve muscle endurance. Resistance exercise is recommended 23 times a week. ④
Jiang Hua, deputy director of the Multidisciplinary Laboratory of Trauma Metabolism Group of Sichuan Provincial People’s Hospital, also suggested in May 2017 that in order to gain muscle and ensure muscle quality, some resistance exercises to increase muscle weight can be done in daily exercise, such as using barbells, dumbbells and other equipment to train large muscle groups such as chest, shoulders, back and legs, and at the same time, it can be combined with various trainings to improve muscle quality, flexibility and balance (such as various mat exercises). ⑥
Source: Health Times