If we recall the history of the unification of the Ming Dynasty, we can’t get rid of the usual vision of "top-down" in the historical narrative of the dynasty, whether it is the praise of "Ren Xuan’s rule", the hot discussion of "Zheng He’s voyage to the West" or even the strategy of exploring the northern border defense and coastal areas. Society and culture are a continuous variant. The Ming Dynasty not only inherited the clothes of the Han and Tang Dynasties, but also rebelled against the traditional order. Whether it is the change of economic structure and political atmosphere, the acceleration of "social mobility" and its impact on the hierarchy, or the vitality and diversity of ideological culture, there are various reflections in people’s daily life, among which the folk "fashion" is a unique specimen to observe the economic and social life of the Ming Dynasty.
Since the mid-Ming dynasty, a trend of chasing "fashion" has gradually formed. This can’t help but mention two proper nouns: "fashion" and "fashion".
Judging from the existing historical data, the word "fashion" first appeared in the Ming Dynasty. What is fashion? The essay on bamboo window written by the famous monk Bian Hong in the late Ming Dynasty has the following explanation: "Today, one dress and one hat, one instrument and one thing, one word and one word, all kinds of actions, all of which are sung by one person and followed by a group, are called fashion." That is to say, the formation of fashion is usually "sung by one person", and its influence is "followed by a group", forming a regional or even national shock wave.
Essays on Bamboo Window, written by Yunqi Youhong, also known as master lianchi and Yunqi Master. He was diligent in writing and writing all his life, with a total of more than 30 kinds of works, which were compiled into Yunqi Fahui by his disciples Daxian, Li Shouyi and others, with 3 letters and 34 volumes.
Let’s talk about "one coat and one hat" first, which is obviously related to the word "current situation". In the Ming Dynasty, the style of clothes and hats of Bo Zi in the south of the Yangtze River all changed the ancient system, which was called "the style of the times". So, what was the "fashion" costume at that time? We might as well give an example to illustrate: pen tube water socks. Most of the cloth socks originally used in the Ming Dynasty were wide and tied between the knees. However, in the late Ming Dynasty, this kind of wide socks was no longer popular, but instead became popular with narrow socks. This kind of narrow socks is also called "pen tube water socks".
Looking at "one word and one language" again, we can generally examine it from two aspects: proverbs and clear words. In the south of the Yangtze River in the Ming Dynasty, the local dialect was quite popular. Two-part allegorical sayings in novels of the Ming Dynasty, such as "Shen Wansan in Nanjing, the bend of a dead tree in Beijing-the name of a person, the shadow of a tree", are obviously popular proverbs at that time, and should be "Shen Wansan in Nanjing, the willow tree in Beijing". These fashionable catchwords, originally from the song, gradually spread to ordinary people, and finally became "dressed in clothes" and began to be accepted by some literati. In addition, among the literati and scholars in the south of the Yangtze River in the Ming Dynasty, a kind of clear words was popular, which was obviously closely related to their elegant life. For example, Zhu Cunli wrote Panasonic Clear Words.
Whether it is clothes, words, or utensils, its fashion formation is usually initiated by one person, so many fashion figures appeared in the Ming Dynasty. In the Ming Dynasty, if cultural people wanted to be a fashion figure, they could only rely on their works and behaviors. If they are the initiators, and trigger a group to imitate the effect, and finally form a "fashion", then these people can be called fashion figures. In the Ming Dynasty, the only people who could truly be called fashion figures were Li Zhi (known as "Zhuo Wu"), Chen Jiru (known as "Mei Gong"), Wang Zhideng (known as "Baigu"), Yuan Huang (known as "Mr. Lefan") and You Hong (known as "master lianchi").
In the late Ming Dynasty, Suzhou and Hangzhou should be said to be the most fashionable and avant-garde cities at that time, and for this reason, they formed proprietary names such as "Su-like", "Su-Italian" and "Hangzhou style", which spread for a while and were well known to the public.
There is a common saying in the Ming Dynasty: "Suzhou is like a craftsman in Guangzhou." The so-called "Suzhou-like" still has a related new term in the Ming Dynasty, which is "Su Yi". The message behind this noun is that Suzhou has become the fashion capital of the world at that time. In the Ming Dynasty, the name of Suzhou was not the victory of man-made gardens, but the people in the city. The so-called Soviet style, Shen Hongyu, a Ming dynasty, once explained in the volume of "Gambling Organs": "The house is exquisitely decorated, and it is well displayed on several tables, with more exotic fragrance and more fine tea. When I met hanger-on, I sat and talked and laughed with a stove of cigarettes and a pot of tea. I stayed up all night in poverty, and I didn’t worry about trifles, and I didn’t export them with common sayings. This elegant flavor is worthy of Taoyuan. "
As for Su Yi, it can be cited as an example by Wu Congxian, a famous man in the Ming Dynasty, in "A Small Window for Self-discipline": "Burning incense and cooking tea has never cleared classes, but now it is wrong to say’ Su Yi’. Everything in the world is burned and cooked, and it belongs to the Soviet Union alone. If Su Fei is interested in this, it will be enjoyable. " It can be seen that the common people focus on its content, that is, practical value, while Suzhou people focus on such a form, but it is freehand brushwork, expressing an artistic conception, that is, attaching importance to its aesthetic value.
Obviously, the so-called "Su Yi" should include the following two meanings: one is the fashion of clothes, and the other is "being a man is like a man." To use today’s fashionable words is to walk in the forefront of the times and always be the trendsetter of fashion. So, what kind of talents can be regarded as "being a man with a penetrating mind"? Wu Weiye, a famous poet in the late Ming Dynasty and early Qing Dynasty, borrowed the words of Zhen Qi, a dude, to tell the basic characteristics of this life, that is, playing with antiques and trying new tea.
(The author is a professor at the School of History and Culture of Southwest University)
The original title is "Fashion of Ming People"
Source: Beijing Daily client
Author: Chen Baoliang
Producer: Liu Lizhi
Editor: Xin Yuan
Process Editor: Sun Yujie